directions: read the following text. choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark a, b, c or d on the answer sheet. (10 points)
even if families dons day, few culinary pleasures can 2 it. yet as we report now. the food police are determi
ned our health. that this 3 should be rendered yet another quilty pleasure 4 to damage our health.
the food standards authority (fsa) has 5 a public worming about the risks of a compound called acrylamide that forms in some foods cooked 6 high temperatures. this means that people should 7 crisping their roast potatoes, reject thin -crust pizzas and only 8 toast their bread. but where is the evidence to support such adarmlist advice? 9 studies have shown that acrylamide can cause neurological damage in mice, there is no 10 evidence that it causes cancer in humans.
scientists say the compound is 11 to cause cancer but have no hard scientific proof 12 the precautionary principle it could be argued that it is 13 to follow the fsa advice. 14 it was rumourded that smoking caused cancer for years before the evidence was found to prove a 15
doubtless a piece of boiled feef can always be 16 up on sunday alongside some steamed vegetables, without the york shire pudding and no wine. but would life be worth living? 17 ,the fsa says it is not telling people to cut out roast foods 18 , but reduce their lifetime intake.however its 19 risks coming a cross as being pushy and overprotective. constant health scares just 20 with no one listening.
1. [a]in [b]towards [c]on [d]till
2. [a ]match [b]express [c]satisfy [d]influence
3.[a]patience [b]enjoyment [c]surprise [d]concem
4.[a]intensified [b]privileged [c] compelled [d]guaranteed
5. [a]issued [b]received [c]ignored [d]cancelled
6. [a] under [b]at [c]for [d]by
7. [a]forget [b]regret [c]finish [d] avoid
8. [a]partially [b]regularly [c] easily [d]initially
9. [a]unless [b]since [c]if [d]while
10.[a] secondary [b]extermal [c] conclusive [d] negative
11.[a]insufficient [b]bound [c]likely [d]slow
12.[a]on the basis of [b]at the cost of [c] in addition to [d]in contrast to
13.[a]interesting [b]advisable [c]urgent [d]fortunate
14.[a]as usual [b]in particular [c]by definition [d]after all
15.[a]resemblance [b]combination [c] connection [d]pattern
16.[a]made [b]served [c]saved [d]used
17.[a]to be fair [b]for instance [c]to be brief [d]in general
18.[a]reluctantly [b]entirely [c] gradually [d] carefully
19.[a] promise [b] experience [c]campaign [d] competition
20.[a]follow up [b]pick up [c] open up [d]end up
12. on the basis of
14. after all
17. to be fair
20. end up
section iii reading comprehension
part a directions: read the following four texts. answer the questions below each text by choosing a, b, c or d. mark your answers on the answer sheet. (40 points)
a group of labour mps, among them yvette cooper, are bringing in the new year with a call to institute a uk town, it is true are not prevented from applying, but they generally lack the resources to put together a bit to beat their bigger competitions. a town of culture award could, it is argued, become an annual event, attracting funding and creating jobs.
some might see the proposal as a boo by prize for the fact that britain is no longer be able to apply for the much more prestigious title of european capital of culture, a sought-after award bagged by glasgow in 1990 and livorpool in 2008. a cynic might speculate that the uk is on the verge of disappearing into an endless fever of self-celebration in its desperation to reinvent itself for the post-brexit world: after town of culture, who knows that will follow-village of culture? suburb of culture? hamlet of culture?
it is also wise to recall that such titles are not a cure-all. a badly run they nudge the self-image of the city into a bolder and more optimistic light.
it is hard to get right, and requires a remarkable degree of vision, as well as cooperation between city authorities, the private sector, community groups and cultural organisations. but it can be done: glasgows year as european capital of culture can certainly be seen as one of complex series of factors that have turned the city into the power of art, music and theatre that it remains today.
a s peculiarities-helping sustain its high street, supporting local facilities and above all celebrating its people and turn it into action.
21. cooper and her colleagues argue that a award could
[a] consolidate the town-city ties in britain.
[b] promote cooperation among britains towns.
[c] increase the economic strength of britains towns.
[d] focus britains limited resources on cultural events.
22. according to paragraph 2, the proposal might be regarded by some as
[a] a sensible compromise.
[b] a self-deceiving attempt.
[c] an eye-cotching bonus.
[d] an inaccessible target.
23. the author suggests that a title holder is successful only if it
[a] endeavours to maintain its image.
[b] meets the aspirations of its people.
[c] brings its local arts to prominence.
[d] commits to its long-term growth.
24. glasgow is mentioned in paragraph 3 to present
[a] a contrasting case.
[b] a supporting example.
[c]a background story.
[d] a related topic.
25. what is the authors attitude towards the proposal?
21.d focus britains limited resources on cultural events.
22.b a self-deceiving attempt.
23.d commits to its long-term growth.
24.b a supporting example.
scientific publishing has long been a licence to print money, scientists need journals in which to publish their research, so they will supply the articles without monetary reward. other scientists perform the specialised work of peer review also for free, because it is a central element in the acquisition of status and the production of scientific knowledge.
with the content of papers secured for free, the publisher needs only find a market for its journal. until this century, university libraries were not very price sensitive. scientific publishers routinely report profit margins approaching 40% on their operations, at a time when the rest of the publishing industry is in an existential crisis.
the dutch giant elsevier, which claims to publish 25% of the scientific papers produced in the world, made profits of more than f 900m last year, while uk universities alone spent more than f 210m in 2016 to enable researchers to access their own publicly funded research;both figures seem to rise unstoppably despite increasingly desperate efforts to change them.the most drastic, and thoroughly illegal, reaction has been the emergence of sci-hub, a kind of global photocopier for scientific papers, set up in 2012, which now claims to offer access to every pay walled article published since 2015. the success of sci-hub, which relies on researchers passing on copies they have themselves legally accessed, shows the legal ecosystem has lost legitimacy among its users and must be transformed so that it works for all participants.
in britain the move towards open access publishing has been driven by funding http://bodies.in some ways it has been very successful. more than half of all british scientific research is now published under open access terms; either freely available from the moment of publication,or pay walled for a year or more so that the publishers can make a profit before being placed on general release.
yet the new system has not worked out any cheaper for the universities. publishers have responded to the demand that they make their product free to readers by charging their writers fees to cover the costs of preparing an article. these range from around500 to $5,000.a report last year pointed out that the costs both of subscriptions and of these had been steadily rising at a rate above inflation.
in some ways the scientific publishing model resembles the economy of the social internet:labour is provided free in exchange for the hope of status, while huge profits are made by a few big firms who run the market places. in both cases, we need a rebalancing of power.
26. scientific publishing is seen as partly because
[a] its funding has enjoyed a steady increase.
[b] its marketing strategy has been successful.
[c] its payment for peer review is reduced.
[d] its content acquisition costs nothing.!
27. according to paragraphs 2 and 3, scientific publishers elsevier have
[a] thrived mainly on university libraries.
[b] gone through an existential crisis.
[c] revived the publishing industry.
[d] financed researchers generously.
28. how does the author feel about the success of sci-hub? [a] relieved.
29. it can be learned from paragraphs 5 and 6 that open access terms
[a] allow publishers some room to make money.
[b] render publishing much easier for scientists.
[c] reduce the cost of publication substantially.
[d] free universities from financial burdens.
30. which of the following characterises the scientific publishing model?
[a] trial subscription is offered.
[b] labour triumphs over status.
[c]costs are well controlled.
[d] the few feed on the many.
26.d its content acquisition costs nothing.
27.a thrived mainly on university libraries.
29.a allow publishers some room to make money.
30.d the few feed on the many.
progressives often support diversity mandates as a path to equality and a way to level the playing field. but all too often such policies are an insincere form of virtue-signaling that benefits only the most privileged and does little to help average people.
a pair of bills sponsored by massachusetts state senator jason lewis and house speaker pro tempore patricia haddad, to ensure on boards and commissions, provide a case in point.
haddad and lewis are concerned that more than half the state-government board are lessthan40 percent female. in order to ensure that elite women have more such opportunities, they have proposed imposing government quotas. if the bills become law, state boards and commissions will be required to set aside 50 percent of board seats for women by 2022.
the bills are similar to a measure recently adopted in califomia, which last year became the first state to require gender quotas for private companies. in signing the measure, california governor jerry brown admitted that the law, which expressly classifies people on the basis of sex, is probably unconstitutional.
the us supreme court frowns on sex based classifications unless they are designed to address an .
but are such government mandates even necessary? female participation on corporate boards may not currently mirror the percentage of women in the general population, but so what?
the number of women on corporate boards has been steadily increasing without government interference. according to a study by catalyst, between 2010 and 2015 the share of women on the boards of global corporations increased by 54 percent.
requiring companies to make gender the primary qualification for board membership will inevitably lead to less experienced private sector boards. that is exactly what happened when norway adopted a nationwide corporate gender quota.
writing in the new republic, alice lee notes that increasing the number of opportunities for board membership without increasing the pool of qualified women to serve on such boards has led to a phenomenon, where the same elite women scoop up multiple seats on a variety of boards.
next time somebody pushes corporate quotas as a way to promote gender equity,remember that such policies are largely self-serving measures that make their sponsors feelgood but do little to help average women.
31.the author believes that the bills sponsored by lewis and haddad will
[a] help little to reduce gender bias.
[b] pose a threat to the state government.
[c] raise womens position in politics.
[d] greatly broaden career options.
32. which of the following is true of the califormia measure?
[a] it has irritated private business owners.
[b] it is welcomed by the supreme court.
[c] it may go against the constitution.
[d] it will settle the prior controversies.
33. the author mentions the study by catalyst to illustrate
[a] the harm from arbitrary board decision.
[b]the importance of constitutional guarantees.
[c] the pressure on women in global corporations.
[d] the needlessness of government interventions.
34. norways adoption of a nationwide corporate gender quota has led to
[a] the underestimation of elite womens role
[b] the objection to female participation on boards.
[c]the entry of unqualified candidates into the board.
[d] the growing tension between labor and management.
35. which of the following can be inferred from the text?
[a] womens need in employment should be considered.
[b] feasibility, should be a prime concern in policy making.
[c] everyone should try hard to promote social justice.
[d] major social issues should be the focus of legislation.
31.a help little to reduce gender bias.
32.c it may go against the constitution.
33.d the needlessness of government interventions.
34.c the entry of unqualified candidates into the board.
35.b feasibility should be a prime concern in policymaking.
last thursday, the french senate passed a digital services tax, which would impose an entirely new tax on large multinationals that provide digital services to consumers or users in france. digital services include everything from providing a platform for selling goods and services online to targeting advertising based on user data, and the tax applies to gross revenue from such services. many french politicians and media outlets have referred to this as a meaning that it is designed to apply primarily to companies such as google,apple, facebook and amazon-in other words, multinational tech companies based in the united states.
the digital services tax now awaits the signature of president emmanuel macron, who has expressed support for the measure, and it could go into effect within the next few weeks.but it has already sparked significant controversy, with the unite sates trade representative opening an investigation into whether the tax discriminates against american companies,which in turn could lead to trade sanctions against france.
the french tax is not just a unilateral move by one country in need of revenue. instead,the digital services tax is part of a much larger trend, with countries over the past few years proposing or putting in place an alphabet soup of new international tax provisions. these have included britains dpt (diverted profits tax).
australias sep (significant economic presence) test, to name but a few. at the same time, the european union. spain,britain and several other countries have all seriously contemplated digital services taxes.
these unilateral developments differ in their specifics, but they are all designed to tax multinationals on income and revenue that countries believe they should have a right to tax,even if international tax rules do not grant them that right. in other words, they all share a view that the international tax system has failed to keep up with the current economy.
in response to these many unilateral measures, the organization for economic cooperation and development (oecd) is currently working with 131 countries to reach aconsensus by the end of 2020 on an international solution. both france and the united states are involved in the organizations digital services tax and the american response raise questions about what the future holds for the international tax system.
frances planned tax is a clear warning: unless a broad consensus can be reached on reforming the international tax system, other nations are likely to follow suit, and american companies will face a cascade of different taxes from dozens of nations that will prove burdensome and costly.
36.the french senate has passed a bill to
[a] regulate digital services platforms.
[b] protect french companies interests.
[c] impose a levy on tech multinationals.
[d] curb the influence of advertising.
37. it can be learned from paragraph 2 that the digital services tax
[a] may trigger countermeasures against france.
[b] is apt to arouse criticism at home and abroad.
[c] aims to ease international trade tensions.
[d] will prompt the tech giants to quit france.
38. the countries adopting the unilateral measures share the opinion that
[a] redistribution of tech giants revenue must be ensured.
[b] the current international tax system needs upgrading.
[c] tech multinationals monopoly should be prevented.
[d] all countries ought to enjoy equal taxing rights.
39. it can be learned from para 5 that the oecos current work
[a] is being resisted by us companies.
[b] needs to be readjusted immediately.
[c] is faced with uncertain prospects.
[d] needs to in involve more countries.
40. which of the following might be the best title for this text?
[a] france is confronted with trade sanctions
[b] france leads the charge on digital tax
[c] france says to tech multinationals
[d] france demands a role in the digital economy
36.c impose alevy on tech multinationals.
37.a may trigger countermeasures against france.
38.b the current international tax system needs upgrading
39.c is faced with uncertain prospects.
40.b france leads the charge on digital tax
part b directions:
in the following text, some sentences have been removed. for questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the fist a-g to fit into each of the numbered blanks. there are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. mark your answers on answer sheet. (10 points)
[a] eye fix actions are brief
[b] too much eye contact is instinctively felt to be rude[c] eye contact can be a friendly social signal
[d] personality can affect how a person reacts to eye contact
[e] biological factors behind eye contact are being investigated [f] most people are not comfortable holding eye contact with strangers
[g] eye contact can also be aggressive.
in a social situation, eye contact with another person can show that you are paying attention in a friendly way, but it can also be antagonistic such as when a political candidate turns toward their competitor during a debate and makes eye contact that signals hostility.here can signal availability and confidence, a common-sense notion supported in studies by psychologist monica moore.
neuroscientist bonnie augeung found that the hormone oxytocin increased the amount of eye contact from men toward the interviewer during a brief interview when the direction of their gaze was recorded. this was also found in high- functioning men with some autistic spectrum symptoms, who may tend to avoid eye contact. specific brain regions that respond during direct gaze are being explored by other researches, using advanced methods of brain scanning.
with the use of eye-tracking technology, julia minson of the harvard kennedy school of government concluded that eye contact can signal very different kinds of messages,depending on the situation. while eye contact may be a sign of connection or trust in friendly situations, it said minson.
when we look at a face or a picture, our eyes pause on one spot at a time, often on the eyes or mouth. these pauses typically occur at about three per second, and the eyes then jump to another spot, until several important points in the image. are registered like a series of snapshots. how the whole image is then assembled and perceived is still a mystery although it is the subject of current research.
in people who score high in a test of neuroticism, a personality dimension associated with self-consciousness and anxiety, eye contact triggered more activity associated with avoidance,according to the finnish researcher jari hietanen and colleagues a more direct finding is that people who scored high for negative emotions like anxiety looked at others for shorter periods of time and reported more comfortable feelings when others did not look directly at them.
41. c eye contact can be a friendly social signal
42.e biological factors behind eye contact are being investigated
43.g eye contact can also be aggressive
44.a eye fixactions are brief
45.d personality can affect how a person reacts to eye contact
part cdirections: read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into chinese. your translation should be written neatly on the answer sheet. (10points)
following the explosion of creativity in florence during the 14h century known as the renaissance, the modern world saw a departure from what it had once known. it turned from god and the authority of the roman catholic church and instead favoured a more humanistic approach to being. renaissance ideas had spread throughout europe well into the 17h century,with the arts and sciences flourishing extraordinarily among those with a more logical disposition. (46) with the churchs teachings and ways of thinking eclipsed by the renaissance,the gap between the medieval and modern periods had been bridged leading to new and unexplored itellectual territories.
during the renaissance, the great minds of nicolaus copernicus, johannes kepler and galileo galilei demonstrated the power of scientific study and discovery. (47) before each of their revelations many thinkers at the time had sustained more ancient ways of thinking.including the geo-centric view that the earth was a the centre of our universe. copernicus theorized in 1543 that all of the planets that we knew of revolved not around the earth, but the sun, a system that was later upheld by galileo at his own expense. offering up such a theory during a time of high tension between scientific and religious minds was branded as heresy and any such heretics that continued to spread these lies were to be punished by imprisonment or even death.
(48) despite attempts by the church to suppress. this new generation of logicians and rationalists, more explanations for how the universe functioned were being made at a rate that the people could no longer ignore.
it was with these great revelations that a new kind of philosophy founded in reason was born.
the churchs long- standing dogma was losing the great battle for truth to rationalists and scientists. this very fact embodied the new ways of thinking that swept through europe during most of 17h century. (49) as many took on the duty of trying to integrate reasoning and scientific philosophies into the world, the renaissance was over and it was time for a new era-the age of reason.
the 17h and i8h centuries were times of radical change and curiosity, scientific method,reductionism and the questioning of church ideals was to be encouraged, as were ideas of liberty, tolerance and progress. (50) such actions to seek knowledge and to understand what information we already knew were captured by the latin phrase.it was the purpose and responsibility of great minds to go forth and seek out the truth, which they believed to be founded in knowledge.
section ll writing
the students union of your university has assigned you to inform the international students about an upcoming singing contest. white a notice in about 100 words.
write your answer on the answer sheet.
do not use your own name in the notice. (10 points)
in order to enrich the campus life and provide the colorful life for you, the students union is preparing the upcoming singing contest, which will be held in the auditorium in our university on the evening of december 31, 2019. now, the union is recruiting contestants for this competition.
anyone who are fond of signing or interested in the competition, please send his or her application to students’email@example.com before next wednesday. besides, there are generous awards in gratitude for this activity. please do not hesitate to contact us if you have any queries concerning the singing contest. meanwhile, volunteers for this activity are badly needed to assist us in organizing the relevant affairs.
we are looking forward to your participation.
the students union
write an essay of 160-200 words based on the pictures below, in your essay, you should
1) describe the picture briefly,
2) interpret the implied meaning, and
3) give your comments.
write your answer on the answer sheet. (20 points)
portrayed distinctively by the two cartoons above is an impressive scene: a girl in the left picture is doing homework and saying that early completion is better. nevertheless, the boy in the right picture is sitting in front of the desk and saying that he will not finish the homework until the last minute.
undoubtedly, the symbolic implication of the pictures is to show us that importance should be attached to the formation of good habits, especially the good habit of time management. on the one hand, efficient time management is critical to personal development. as the old saying goes,“time is money, and in the fast-paced modern life, it seems that we always have a lot of things to do and we are very busy. in the face of such a situation, we have to realize that efficiency holds
the key to saving time and time management skills hold the key to personal success. on the other hand, good time management habits play a vital role in the development of the whole society. there is no doubt that, to a large extent, social progress is closely related to the efforts of each individual. if we can develop the good habit of time management, we are much more likely to improve efficiency and have a better performance in the learning and working process, which is an
integral part of social advances and prosperity.
from what has been mentioned above, we can come to the conclusion that the sense of efficient time management skills is of equal importance in personal and social progress.therefore,we ought to take advantage of the phenomenon to enlighten the public and the press is expected to take a lead in advertising the value of developing good time management habits. only in this way can we have a bright future.
英语一作文： 的写作160篇 英语二作文就是 写作宝中宝（专用的）。
《 真题大全解》：从94年到现在的真题都包括了，讲解很好， 助研究数学题型。