2019考研英语一真题及答案分析(2019考研英语一作文)

2019考研英语一真题及答案分析(2019考研英语一作文)缩略图

??考研结束了,雒老师joy需要抢一些热点了。等抢完热点之后我们继续按之前外刊精彩表达、外刊精读或外刊英语作文那样推送文章。

其实一年也马上结束了,明年要考的人这个时候应该好好看看考研英语真题,适当调整下明年的学习计划。以前很多人都在狂追经济学人,其实看看这次考研英语,还有mti考研,大家会发现很多都是一些其他平台的内容,所以大家也要平时多关注一些外刊外媒资讯网站,不能只局限在经济学人或纽约时报了。

明年会给大家分享推送更多各个领域的内容。这些外刊适合专四专八备考、四六级备考,考研英语备考、mti和catti备考、托福雅思等任何英语考试的备考和学习。

以下分析和讲解,希望对你有用。如果后面想继续跟着学详细分析讲解的经济学人、纽约时报等外刊分析,长难句分析、翻译讲解等等。以下是雒老师joy给的2019考研英语一真题及参考答案解析

2019考研英语一真题及答案分析
section ⅰ use of english

directions:

read the following text. choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark a, b, c or d on the answer sheet. (10 points)

today we live in a world where gps systems, digital maps, and other navigation apps are available on our smart phones. ?1 ?of us just walk straight into the woods without a phone. but phones ?2 ?on batteries, and batteries can die faster than we realize. ?3 ?you get lost without a phone or a compass, and you ?4 ?can’t find north, a few tricks to help you navigate ?5 ?to civilization, one of which is to follow the land…

when you find yourself well ?6 ?a trail, but not in a completely ?7 ?area, you have to answer two questions: which? 8? is downhill, in this particular area? and where is the nearest water source? humans overwhelmingly live in valleys, and on supplies of fresh water.? 9 ?, if you head downhill, and follow any h2o you find, you should? 10? see signs of people.

if you’ve explored the area before, keep an eye out for familiar sights—you may be ?11 ?how quickly identifying a distinctive rock or tree can restore your bearings.

another ?12 ?: climb high and look for signs of human habitation.? 13?, even in dense forest, you should be able to ??14? ?gaps in the tree line due to roads, train tracks, and other paths people carve?15? the woods. head toward these? 16? to find a way out. at night, scan the horizon for ?17? light sources, such as fires and streetlights, then walk toward the glow of light pollution.

?18 , assuming you’re lost in an area humans tend to frequent, look for the? 19? we leave on the landscape. trail blazes, tire tracks, and other features can ?20 ?you to civilization.

1.?[a]some [b]most [c]few [d]all?

答案:c.few

解析:没有人会不携带手机直接走进森林。

2.?[a]put[b]take[c]run [d]come

答案:?c. run

解析:run on battery是固定表达,手机靠电池运行

3.?[a]since [b] if [c] though [d]until

答案:b. if ?

解析:此处表示假设的情况用if链接。

4.?[a]formally [b] relatively [c] gradually [d] literally

答案:??d.?literally

解析:literally表示确实地,真正地,formally (正式地),relatively(相对地),gradually(逐渐地)

5.?[a] back? [b] next [c] around [d] away

答案:a. back?

解析:填入back,表示回到文明

6.?[a]onto [b]off[c]across [d]alone

答案:b. off

解析:b选项off (远离,离开)

7. [a]unattractive[b] uncrowded [c]unchanged [d]unfamiliar

答案:d. unfamiliar

解析:此处需要与前文构成转折关系。……但也不是完全不熟悉的路。

8.[a] site[b]point [c]way [d]place

答案:c. way

解析:?此处用way道路,这里意思是“哪个是下山路”

9.?[a] so [b] yet [c]instead [d]besides

答案:a. so

解析:此处表示因果的逻辑关系,只有a选项so(所以,因此)符合要求。因此你如果下山,沿着河流走,就会找到有人的地方。

10. [a]immediately [b] intentionally [c]unexpectedly [d] eventually

答案:?d. eventually

解析:a选项immediately立即,立刻,b选项intentionally故意地,有意地,c选项unexpectedly意外地,出乎意料地。

10.?[a]surprised [b]annoyed [c]frightened [d]confused

答案:a. surprised

解析:在原文中的意思为“你或许会感到惊讶”。

12.?[a] problem [b]option [c]view [d]result

答案:?b. option

解析:option表示“选择,办法”

13. [a] above all [b]in contrast [c] on average [d] for example

答案:?d. for example

解析:空格前后列举了一系列现象。

13.?[a]bridge [b]avoid [c]spot [d]separate

答案:?c. spot?

解析:spot发现

15.?[a] from [b] through [c]beyond [d] under

答案:?b. through

解析:这里的意思在森林中开辟道路

16.?[a] posts [b]links [c]shades [d]breaks

答案:?d. breaks

17. [a] artificial???? [b] mysterious????????????? [c] hidden????? [d] limited

答案:a. artificial

18.?[a] finally?????? [b] consequently?? [c] incidentally [d] generally

答案:a??finally???

19.?[a] memories?? [b] marks????????????? [c] notes??????? [d] belongings????

答案:b. marks?

解析:“标记”marks

20.?[a] restrict?????? [b] adopt?????????????? [c] lead????????? [d] expose

答案:?c. lead?

解析:此处表示引导lead to

section ⅱ? reading comprehension

part a

directions:

read the following four texts. answer the questions below each text by choosing a, b, c or d. mark your answers on the answer sheet. (40 points)

text 1

financial regulations in britain have imposed a rather unusual rule on the bosses of big banks. starting next year, any guaranteed bonus of top executives could be delayed 10 years if their banks are under investigation for wrongdoing. the main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution. yet officials also hope for a much larger benefit: more long term decision-making not only by banks but also by all corporations, to build a stronger economy for future generations.

“short-termism” or the desire for quick profits, has worsened in publicly traded companies, says the bank of england’s top economist. andrew haldane. he quotes a giant of classical economies, alfred marshall, in describing this financial impatience as acting like “children who pick the plums out of their pudding to eat them at once” rather than putting them aside to be eaten last.

the average time for holding a stock in both the united states and britain, he notes, has dropped from seven years to seven months in recent decades. transient investors, who demand high quarterly profits from companies, can hinder a firm’s efforts to invest in long-term research or to build up customer loyalty. this has been dubbed “quarterly capitalism”.

in addition, new digital technologies have allowed more rapid trading of equities, quicker use of information, and thus shortens attention spans in financial markers. “there seems to be a predominance of short-term thinking at the expense of long-term investing,” said commissioner daniel gallagher of the us securities and exchange commission in speech this week.

in the us, the sarbanes-oxley act of 2002 has pushed most public companies to defer performance bonuses for senior executives by about a year, slightly helping reduce “short-termism.” in its latest survey of ceo pay, the wall street journal finds that “ a substantial part” of executive pay is now tied to performance.

much more could be done to encourage “long-termism,” such as changes in the tax code and quicker disclosure of stock acquisitions. in france, shareholders who hold onto a company investment for at least two years can sometimes earn more voting rights in a company.

within companies, the right compensation design can provide incentives for executives to think beyond their own time at the company and on behalf of all stakeholders. britain’s new rule is a reminder to bankers that society has an interest in their performance, not just for the short term but for the long term.

21. according to paragraph 1, one motive in imposing the new rule is the_________.

a. enhance banker’s sense of responsibility

b. help corporations achieve larger profits

c. build a new system of financial regulation

d. guarantee the bonuses of top executives

答案:a?通过这句话可以看出the main purpose of this “clawback” rule is to hold bankers accountable for harmful risk-taking and to restore public trust in financial institution. hold sb accountable for 就是对……负责的意思,所以是enhance banker’s sense of responsibility。
2019考研英语一真题及答案分析(2019考研英语一作文)插图

22. alfred marshall is quoted to indicate_________.

a. the conditions for generating quick profits

b. governments’ impatience in decision-making

c. the solid structure of publicly traded companies

d. “short-termism” in economics activities

答案:d?”short-termism” in economic activities。举“children who pick the plums out of their pudding to eat them at once” 小孩摘下李子立刻吃掉的行为就是为了说明economic activities的“short-termism”

23. it is argued that the influence of transient investment on public companies can be__________.

a. indirect

b. adverse

c. minimal

d. temporary

答案:b?这里是在说 transient investment on public companies的不好处adverse

24. the us and france examples are used to illustrate____________.

a. the obstacles to preventing “short-termism”.

b. the significance of long-term thinking.

c. the approaches to promoting “long-termism”.

d. the prevalence of short-term thinking.

答案:c??举例子是为了说明英国和法国的推广long-termism的作法

25. which of the following would be the best title for the text?

a. failure of quarterly capitalism

b. patience as a corporate virtue

c. decisiveness required of top executives

d. frustration of risk-taking bankers

答案:b???这里如果不会选择,可以使用排除法,其他的都不对,只说了文章了一部分内容。patience as a corporate virtue才是对的,也就是前面提到的long-termism。

text 2

grade inflation–the gradual increase in average gpas(grade-point averages) over the past few decades—is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education, in which students are treated like customers to be pleased. but another related force—a policy often buried deep in course catalogs called “grade forgiveness”—is helping raise gpas.

??? grade forgiveness allows students to retake a course in which they received a low grade, and the most recent grade or the highest grade is the only one that counts in calculating a student’s overall gpa.

??? the use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition) and improve their graduation rates. when this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses. but now most colleges save for many selective campuses, allow all undergraduates, and even graduate students, to get their low grades forgiven.

??? college officials tend to emphasize that the goal of grade forgiveness is less about the grade itself and more about encouraging students to retake courses critical to their degree program and graduation without incurring a big penalty. “untimely,” said jack miner, ohio state university’s registrar,“we see students achieve more success because they retake a course and do better in subsequent contents or master the content that allows them to graduate on time.”

? that said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness satisfies colleges’ own needs as well. for public institutions, state funds are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as graduation rates and student retention—so better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money. and anything that raises gpas will likely make students—who, at the end of the day, are paying the bill—feel they’ve gotten a better value for their tuition dollars, which is another big concern for colleges.

? indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers’ expectations for higher education. since students and parents expect a college degree to lead a job, it is in the best interest of a school to turn out graduates who are as qualified as possible—or at least appear to be. on this, students’ and colleges’ incentives seem to be aligned.

26. what is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation?

a.??? the change of course catalogs.

b.??? students’ indifference to gpas.

c.??? colleges’ neglect of gpas.

d.??? the influence of consumer culture.

答案:d?第一段里面提到了grade inflation两个原因:consumer culture和the change of course catalogs,但是这里问的是 commonly regarded as,刚好和原文的is often considered一致,commonly也就是often。

27.???? what was the original purpose of grade forgiveness?

a. to help freshmen adapt to college learning.

b. to maintain colleges’ graduation rates.

c. to prepare graduates for a challenging future.

d. to increase universities’ income from tuition.

答案:a?when this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses.通过这句可以看出,是为了让新生适应大学学习。

28.???? according to paragraph 5, grade forgiveness enable colleges to_________.

a. obtain more financial support

b. boost their student enrollments

c. improve their teaching quality

d. meet local governments’ needs

答案:a??state funds are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as graduation rates and student retention通过这里的state funds国家资金扶持可见应该是obtain more financial support。

29.???? what does the phrase “to be aligned”(line 5, para.6) most probably mean?

a. to counterbalance each other.

b. to complement each other.

c. to be identical with each other.

d. to be contradictory to each other.

答案:c?aligned这里单词我在catti和mti还有外刊里面讲过很多次,是与……相一致的意思,所以应该是to be identical with each other。

30.???? the author examines the practice of grade forgiveness by________.

a. assessing its feasibility

b. analyzing the causes behind it

c. comparing different views on it

d. listing its long-run effects

答案:b??作者在这篇里面都分析了 grade forgiveness这种作法的原因,比如对大学的好处,对学生和家长的好处等等,所以是analyzing the causes behind it

text 3

this year marks exactly two countries since the publication of frankenstein; or, the modern prometheus, by mary shelley. even before the invention of the electric light bulb, the author produced a remarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come.

? today the rapid growth of artificial intelligence (ai) raises fundamental questions:”what is intelligence, identify, or consciousness? what makes humans humans?”

what is being called artificial general intelligence, machines that would imitate the way humans think, continues to evade scientists. yet humans remain fascinated by the idea of robots that would look, move, and respond like humans, similar to those recently depicted on popular sci-fi tv series such as “westworld” and “humans”.

just how people think is still far too complex to be understood, let alone reproduced, says david eagleman, a stanford university neuroscientist. “we are just in a situation where there are no good theories explaining what consciousnesss actually is and how you could ever build a machine to get there.”

but that doesn’t mean crucial ethical issues involving ai aren’t at hand. the coming use of autonomous vehicles, for example, poses thorny ethical questions. human drivers sometimes must make split-second decisions. their reactions may be a complex combination of instant reflexes, input from past driving experiences, and what their eyes and ears tell them in that moment. ai “vision” today is not nearly as sophisticated as that of humans. and to anticipate every imaginable driving situation is a difficult programming problem.

whenever decisions are based on masses of data, “you quickly get into a lot of ethical questions,” notes tan kiat how, chief executive of a singapore-based agency that is helping the government develop a voluntary code for the ethical use of ai. along with singapore, other governments and mega-corporations are beginning to establish their own guidelines. britain is setting up a data ethics center. india released its ai ethics strategy this spring.

on june 7 google pledged not to “design or deploy ai” that would cause “overall harm,” or to develop ai-directed weapons or use ai for surveillance that would violate international norms. it also pledged not to deploy ai whose use would violate international laws or human rights.

while the statement is vague, it represents one starting point. so does the idea that decisions made by ai systems should be explainable, transparent, and fair.

to put it another way: how can we make sure that the thinking of intelligent machines reflects humanity’s highest values? only then will they be useful servants and not frankenstein’s out-of-control monster.

31. mary shelley’s novel frankenstein is mentioned because it

a. fascinates ai scientists all over the world.

b. has remained popular for as long as 200 years.

c. involves some concerns raised by ai today.

d. has sparked serious ethical controversies.

答案: c?这本科幻小说最后的frankenstein无法控制了,所以通过这个a remarkable work of speculative fiction that would foreshadow many ethical questions to be raised by technologies yet to come可见是involves some concerns raised by ai today。不能选d的原因是c跟贴题,这篇文章是在说concerns raised by ai today,而不是单纯在讨论novel frankenstein has sparked serious ethical controversies

32. in david eagleman’s opinion, our current knowledge of consciousness

a. helps explain artificial intelligence.

b. can be misleading to robot making.

c. inspires popular sci-fi tv series.

d. is too limited for us to reproduce it.

答案: d??原文提到人的行为和思维都难以预测和控制,更别说设定和人行为思想一致的程序了。

33. the solution to the ethical issues brought by autonomous vehicles

a. can hardly ever be found.

b. is still beyond our capacity.

c. causes little public concern.

d. has aroused much curiosity.

答案: b?is still beyond our capacity

34. the author’s attitude toward google’s pledge is one of

a. affirmation.

b. skepticism.

c. contempt.

d. respect.

答案: a?通过这句可以看出while the statement is vague, it represents one starting point.虽然说得含糊其辞,但是这代表了一个开端。

35. which of the following would be the best title for the text?

a. ai’s future: in the hands of tech giants

b. frankenstein, the novel predicting the age of ai

c. the conscience of ai: complex but inevitable

d. ai shall be killers once out of control

答案: c?这篇都在说ai的ethical questions,也就是the conscience of ai,这些问题complex but inevitable复杂但不可避免。a.没有说,b.只是个举的例子而已。d.本文没有说的那么夸张,没有说killers。

text 4

states will be able to force more people to pay sales tax when they make online purchases under a supreme court decision thursday that will leave shoppers with lighter wallets but is a big financial win for states.

the supreme court’s opinion thursday overruled a pair of decades-old decisions that states said cost them billions of dollars in lost revenue annually. the decisions made it more difficult for states to collect sales tax on certain online purchases.

the cases the court overturned said that if a business was shipping a customer’s purchase to a state where the business didn’t have a physical presence such as a warehouse or office, the business didn’t have to collect sales tax for the state. customers were generally responsible for paying the sales tax to the state themselves if they weren’t charged it, but most didn’t realize they owed it and few paid.

justice anthony kennedy wrote that the previous decisions were flawed. “each year the physical presence rule becomes further removed from economic reality and results in significant revenue losses to the states,” he wrote in an opinion joined by four other justices. kennedy wrote that the rule “limited states’ ability to seek long-term prosperity and has prevented market participants from competing on an even playing field.”

the ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states, since they usually collect sales tax on online purchases already. now, rivals will be charging sales tax where they hadn’t before. big chains have been collecting sales tax nationwide because they typically have physical stores in whatever state a purchase is being shipped to. amazon.com, with its network of warehouses, also collects sales tax in every state that charges it, though third-party sellers who use the site don’t have to.

until now, many sellers that have a physical presence in only a single state or a few states have been able to avoid charging sales taxes when they ship to addresses outside those states. sellers that use ebay and etsy, which provide platforms for smaller sellers, also haven’t been collecting sales tax nationwide. under the ruling thursday, states can pass laws requiring out-of-state sellers to collect the state’s sales tax from customers and send it to the state.

?retail trade groups praised the ruling, saying it levels the playing field for local and online businesses. the losers, said retail analyst neil saunders, are online-only retailers, especially smaller ones. those retailers may face headaches complying with various state sales tax laws. the small business & entrepreneurship council advocacy group said in a a statement, “small businesses and internet entrepreneurs are not well served at all by this decision.”

36. the supreme court decision thursday will

a. dette business’ relutions with states

b. put most online business in a dilemma

c. make more online shoppers pay sales tax

d. forces some states to cut sales tax

答案:c?通过they make online purchases under a supreme court decision thursday that will leave shoppers with lighter wallets but is a big financial win for states.就可以看出,让online shopper的钱包lighter,就是让他们纳税的意思,后面也提到了。

37. it can be learned from paragraphs 2 and 3 that the overruled decisions?

a.??? have led to the dominance of e-commerce

b.??? have cost consumers a lot over the years

c.??? were widely criticized by online purchases

d.??? were considered upfavorable by states

答案:d???各州说the business didn’t have to collect sales tax for the state,那自然对其是不利的upfavorable。

38.???? according to justice anthony kennedy, the physical presence rule has

a.?????? hindered economic development

b.??????? brought prosperity to the country

c.??????? harmed fair market competition

d.?????? boosted growth in states revenue

答案:c?kennedy wrote that the rule has prevented market participants from competing on an even playing field妨碍了公平竞争,不就是 harmed fair market competition。

39.???? who are most likely to welcome the supreme court ruling

a. internet entrepreneurs?? b. big-chair owners

c. third-party sellers????? d. small retailers

答案:b??the ruling is a victory for big chains with a presence in many states可见对big chains来说是一个victory。

40.???? in dealing with the supreme court decision thursday, the author

a.?????? gives a factual account of it and discusses its consequences

b.??????? describes the long and complicated process of its making

c.??????? presents its main points with conflicting views on them

d.?????? ??cites some cases related to it and analyzes their implications

答案:d??这个比较难定的是a还是d,最后选了d,因为a里面说的consequences通常是后果的意思,这里说的是影响,implications更好。

part b

directions:

the following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. for questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list a-g and filling them into the numbered boxes. paragraph c and f?have been correctly placed. mark your answers on answer sheet. (10 points)

a.?????these tools can help you win every argument-not in the unhelpful sense of beating your opponents but in the better sense of learning about the issues that divide people. learning why they disagree with us and learning to talk and work together with them. if we readjust our view of arguments—from a verbal fight or tennis game to a reasoned exchange through which we all gain mutual respect, and understanding—then we change the very nature of what it means to “win” an argument.

b.??of course, many discussions are not so successful. still, we need to be careful not to accuse opponents of bad arguments too quickly. we need to learn how to evaluate them properly. a large part of evaluation is calling out bad arguments, but we also need to admit good arguments by opponents and to apply the same critical standards to ourselves. humility requires you to recognize weakness in your own arguments and sometimes also to accept reasons on the opposite side.

c.????none of these will be easy but you can start even if others refuse to. next time you state your position, formulate an argument for what you claim and honestly ask yourself whether your argument is any good. next time you talk with someone who takes a stand, ask them to give you a reason for their view. spell out their argument fully and charitably. assess its strength impartially. raise objections and listen carefully to their replies.

d.???carnegie would be right if arguments were fights, which is how we often think of them. like physical fights, verbal fights can leave both sides bloodied. even when you win, you end up no better off. your prospects would be almost as dismal if arguments were even just competitions-like, say, tennis games. paris of opponents hit the ball back and forth until one winner emerges from all who entered. everybody else loses. this kind of thinking is why so many people try to avoid arguments, especially about politics and religion.

e.????in his 1936 work how to win friends and influence people?, dale carnegie wrote: “there is only one way…to get the

best of an argument-and that is to avoid it. “this aversion to arguments is common, but it depends on a mistaken view of arguments that causes profound problems for our personal and social lives- and in many ways misses the point of arguing in the first place.

f. these views of arguments also undermine reason. if you see a conversation as a fight or competition, you can win by cheating as long as you don’t get caught. you will be happy to convince people with bad arguments. you can call their views stupid, or joke about how ignorant they are. none of these tricks will help you understand them, their positions or the issues that divide you, but they can help you win-in one way.

g. there is a better way to win arguments. imagine that you favor increasing the minimum wage in our state, and i do not. if you yell, “yes,” and i yell. “no,” neither of us learns anything. we neither understand nor respect each other, and we have no basis for compromise or cooperation. in contrast, suppose you give a reasonable argument: that full-time workers should not have to live in poverty. then i counter with another reasonable argument: that a higher minimum wage will force businesses to employ fewer people for less time. now we can understand each other’s positions and recognize our shared values, since we both care about needy workers.

【答案】e-d?(carnegie would be right if arguments were fights…..)?-g?(there is a better way to win arguments.)?-b?(of course, many discussions are not so successful.)-a(these tools can help you win every argument……)

part c

directions:

read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into chinese. your translation should be written neatly on the answer sheet. (10 points)

it was only after i started to write a weekly column about the medical journals, and began to read scientific papers from beginning to end, that i realised just how bad much of the medical literature frequently was. i came to recognise various signs of a bad paper: the kind of paper that purports to show that people who eat more than one kilo of broccoli a week were 1.17 times more likely than those who eat less to suffer late in life from pernicious anaemia. (46) there is a great deal of this kind of nonsense in the medical journals which, when taken up by broadcasters and the lay press, generates both health scares and short-lived dietary enthusiasms.

(46)医学期刊中有很多这样的无稽之谈。一旦广播电台和非专业媒体报道了这些无稽之谈,就会引发健康恐慌和短暂的饮食热潮。

why is so much bad science published? a recent paper, titled “the natural selection of bad science”, published on the royal society’s open science website, attempts to answer this intriguing and important question. it says that the problem is not merely that people do bad science, but that our current system of career advancement positively encourages it. what is important is not truth, but publication, which has become almost an end in itself. there has been a kind of inflationary process at work: (47) nowadays anyone applying for a research post has to have published twice the number of papers that would have been required for the same post only 10 years ago.?never mind the quality, then, count the number.

(47) 如今,如果想申请研究职位/岗位,发表的论文必须是10年前同一职位所需论文数量的两倍。

(48)?attempts have been made to curb this tendency, for example, by trying to incorporate some measure of quality as well as quantity into the assessment of an applicant’s papers.?this is the famed citation index, that is to say the number of times a paper has been quoted elsewhere in the scientific literature, the assumption being that an important paper will be cited more often than one of small account. (49) this would be reasonable if it were not for the fact that scientists can easily arrange to cite themselves in their future publications, or get associates to do so for them in return for similar favours.

(48)人们已经采取了措施来遏制这种倾向,比如在评估申请人论文的时候,既要考虑数量,也要考虑质量。

boiling down an individual’s output to simple metrics, such as number of publications or journal impacts, entails considerable savings in time, energy and ambiguity. unfortunately, the long-term costs of using simple quantitative metrics to assess researcher merit are likely to be quite great. (50) if we are serious about ensuring that our science is both meaningful and reproducible, we must ensure that our institutions encourage that kind of science.

(50)?如果我们真想让科学既有意义,又能不断发展,就必须确保制度能够激励这种科学的发展。

section ⅲ? writing

part a

51. directions:

suppose?you?are?working?for?the? “aiding?rurd?primary?school” ?project?of?your?university.?write?an?email?to?answer?the?inquiry?from?an?international?student?volunteer,?specifying?details?of?the?project.

do?not?sign?your?own?name?at?the?end?of?the?email.?use?“li?ming”?instead.

(10 points)

part b

52. directions:

write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following pictures. in your essay, you should

1) describe the pictures briefly,

2) interpret the meaning, and

3) give your comments.

you should write neatly on the answer sheet. (20 points)?

雒老师joy分析:这个文章我第一眼看到就是佛系青年的感觉,容易知足,不愿意奋斗努力。所以这个话题你想怎么写都可以,但是不要脱离努力、积极向上、奋斗、不要那么容易满足都可以。

8.?佛系buddha-like?

chinese youth are defiantly embracing a?”buddha-like”?mindset, with slogans such as?”anything will do,” “let it be” and “take life as it is”?capturing media attention and stirring widespread debate on the usefulness of such thinking.

今天就分享这么多,感谢阅读,写作不易,还请分享和点赞支持!

欢迎大家评论区打卡和补充知识点。

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