2017年考研英语阅读真题(一)text4——出题思路 – 哔哩哔哩(2017年考研英语二)

2017年考研英语阅读真题(一)text4——出题思路 – 哔哩哔哩(2017年考研英语二)缩略图

text4选自2016年6月27日的 the christian science monitor(《基督教科学箴zhēn言报》),原文标题为“the?laws fine line between graft and access”(《法律明确了贪污腐败与正常渠道之间的界限》)。本文是法律类文本,主要论述美国高等法院对公务人员贪污受贿行为的界定和裁决。
美国最高法院对麦克唐纳腐败案的裁决:
第一段:引出事件——最高法院推翻了对罗伯特·麦克唐纳腐败案的裁决
第三、三段:介绍裁决的细节内容
第四、五段:阐述裁决合法的依据
第六、七段:分析裁决的意义
第八段:总结并升华主旨—本次裁决是在同腐败和公务偏袒斗争的过程中迈出的一步.

法律类词汇汇总:
在美国的高院中有一个终身大法官,和八个法官组成,在表决是由八个法官进行投票表决,大法官不干涉;只有在八个法官投票结果为平局时,由大法官裁决。
在地方法院对一个人的定罪,不是由法院对其定罪,而是由 jurry陪审团做决定,而陪审团成员是由平民组成,本案中法官并未告知陪审团前弗吉尼亚州州长罗伯特·麦克唐纳可以做什么,不可以做什么,从而造成了误判。故事是从这里开始的。
1. united states district court地方法院
2 district court of appeals.上诉法院
appeals上诉( appeal的名词复数 ); [体育]诉请; 呼吁;
district ?[?d?str?kt] ???n.地区; 行政区;
?appellant上诉人
united states supreme court最高法院
?court法院
class action lawsuit集体诉讼
action 诉讼
lawsuit[?l??su?t] n.诉讼; 诉讼案件;
5. plaintiff ?[?ple?nt?f] 原告(plaint=complain,表示)
6. defendant[d??fend?nt]被告(fend=to strike,表示)
offend [??fend]犯罪,冒犯,(of=to;fend=to strike)
7. amendment[??mendm?nt]修正案
8. liberal [?l?b?r?l]自由派
9 .conservative [k?n?s??v?t?v]保守派(serv ?=serve/keep,表示 2. 保持,保留)
justice/?judge[?d??st?s]法官
justice高院的法官
?judge地方法院的法官
11. democratic party [?dem??kr?t?k]民主党
12 republican party共和党
13. representative government代议制政府
14. the house众议院(代表选民利益,提交法案)
15. the senate[?sen?t]参议院(代表各州利益,审核法案,只能通过或不通过,不能修改)
16. crime of corruption贪污罪;腐化罪
17.jury[?d???ri] 陪审团
18.verdict(陪审团的)裁决; 裁定
19. lawful act合法行为
unlawful act违法行为
?20.case案子
21.?defendant被告 (用于民事、行政案件);
22.?the accused (用于刑事案件)
23.?appellee被上诉人
24.?respondent; defendant被诉人
25.protest抗诉书
26.accuser; complainant控告人
27.?circumstantial evidence旁证
28.victim [?v?kt?m] 受害人
29.诉讼 litigation; action; lawsuit
30.辩护 defense
31.辩护律师 defense attorney/lawyer(va )
32.辩护人 defender
33.破产 bankruptcy
34.上诉 appeal
?
【1段】①in a rare unanimous?ruling, the us supreme court has overturned the corruption?conviction?of a former virginia governor, robert mcdonnell.?②but it did so while holding its nose at the ethics?of his conduct, which included accepting gifts such as a rolex watch and a ferrari automobile from a company seeking access to government.
unanimous?[ju?n?n?m?s]全体一致的; 一致同意的(un=one)
(un单个+anim生命+ous……的;)(你中有我,我中有你)
corruption?[k??r?p?n]腐败,贪污,受贿;(rupt=break)
(cor全部+rupt断)(腐败结果是国家这棵大树倒下)
conviction[k?n?v?k?n] n.判罪; 坚信; (正义战胜邪恶是“判罪”;最后一定会胜利是“坚信”)
(con=together;vict=conquer;-tion后缀)
ethics[ 伦理(学)
access to接近; 去…的通路
【1段】美国最高法院推翻了对前弗吉尼亚州州长罗伯特·麦克唐纳贪污行为的定罪,这是为数不多的一致性通过的裁决。虽然如此,但最高法院对他的行为道德却嗤之以鼻,这些行为包括从家谋求接近政府官员机会的公司收受劳力士手表,法拉利汽车等礼物.
【2段】①the high court’s decision said the judge in mr. mcdonnell’s trail failed to tell a jury?that it must look only at his “official acts,”?or the former governor’s decisions on “specific” and “unsettled” issues related to his duties.
【2段】高等法院的决议认为对麦克唐纳先生进行审判的法官并未告知陪审团必须只关注其“公务行为”,或者是这位前州长在与其职责相关的“特殊的”和“未解决的”问题上的决定。
?that it must look only at his “official acts,”中that引导的宾语从句,作tell的直接宾语。
?
【3段】①merely helping a gift-giver(to)?gain access to other officials, unless (it is)done with clear intent to pressure those officials, is not corruption, the justices found.
【3段】高院法官发现,他仅仅是 助一个送礼者接近其他官员,而非意图明确地对这些官员施压,这并非贪污。
【句子讲解】本句是复合句。主句是简单句,动名词短语 helping a?gift- giver gain access to other?officials作主语,系动词是 is not,表语是 corruption;动名词短语中, a gift- giver作 helping的宾语,省略to的动词不定式短语(to)gain access to other officials 作a?gift-giver的补语;副词 merely作状语,修饰 helping ,unless引导的条件状语从句,作主句的条件状语;从句中省略了主语it和be动词is,从句的谓语(is)done使用了被动语态,介词短语 with clear?intent作状语;动词不定式短语to pressure those officials作后置定语,修饰 intent。 the justices?found作插入语。
【4段】①the court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.”?②but under?anti-bribery?laws, proof must be made of concrete?benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation.?③simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an “official act.”
under:according to
bribery?[?bra?b?ri] n.行贿; [法]贿赂;
bribe [bra?b] 贿赂;
bride [bra?d] 新娘
concrete[?k??kri?t]adj.混凝土制的; 具体的; 实在的;(con=together;cre=grow)
(混凝土是长在一起的,是很实的东西)
【4段】最高法院指出收受好处并因此为他人提供便利作为回报的行为“令人不快”且“下流龌龊’。但根据反贿赂法,构成贪腐的证据必须由具体有形的利益构成,如合同或法规的批准。仅仅安排一次会见、打电话或举办活动都算不上“公务行为”。
?
【5段】①the court’s ruling is legally sound in defining a kind of favoritism that is not?criminal. ②elected leaders must be allowed to help supporters deal with bureaucratic problems without fear of prosecution?of bribery. “the basic compact underlying representative government,” wrote chief justice john roberts for the court, “assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.”
?criminal?[?kr?m?nl] adj.犯罪的; 刑法的
bureaucratic [?bj??r??kr?t?k]adj.官僚(主义)的;
prosecution?[?pr?s??kju:?n]n.控告,起诉(pro=before;secut=follow,表示)
persecution迫害(per= all through;secut=follow)
(per始终+secut跟随,追+e→从头跟到尾→跟踪→迫害)
execute [?eks?kju?t]执行, 实行, 完成, 处死
(ex出去,即出去做+secut跟随,追+e→execute→[判决]之后而来的就是执行)
【5段】在判定某种偏袒不属于犯罪时,法院的裁决是既合法又合理的。民选领袖应该被允许去 助其支持者处理官僚问题而无须担心被起诉受贿。法院的首席法官约翰·罗伯特写道“代议制政府下的基本协定认为公务人员应听从其选民意见并按照其意愿行使职能。
?
?
【6段】①but the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected?representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access to government. ②officials must not be allowed to play favorites in providing information or in arranging meetings simply because an individual or group provides a campaign donation or a personal gift. ③this type of integrity requires well-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth.
?representative[?repr??zent?t?v]n.代表; 继任者; 议员; (re一再+present出席的+ative人或物等)
integrity[?n?teɡr?ti].正直,诚实(integr=whole,表示)
(integr完整+ity表名词→n.正直,诚实;完整,完全)
transparency?[tr?ns?p?r?nsi]n.透明; 透明度; 透明性
(trans横穿+par看见;出现+ent……的→横穿过去看得一样清楚→透明的)
lobby [?l?bi] 门厅,大厅; 休息室; 游说团;
【6段】尽管如此,该裁决强化了公民及其民意代表而非法院的需求,以此来保证接触政府的公正性。政府官员不得因个人或群体实施捐赠活动或赠送私人礼物而对其偏袒,为其提供情报或安排会晤。这类形式的廉正需要政务公开的强制性法律,如正式会议记录、游说规则以及每位被选出的领导人的财富来源信息。
?
【7段】①favoritism in official access can fan public perceptions of corruption. ②but it is not always corruption.?③rather officials must avoid double standards, or different types of access for average people and the wealthy. ④if connections can be bought, a basic premise of democratic society—that all are equal in treatment by government—is undermined. ⑤good governance rests on an understanding of the inherent?worth of each individual.
undermine [??nd??ma?n]v.逐渐削弱; 使逐步减少效力; 从根基处破坏
(under在……下+mine挖→挖墙角)
inherent?[?n?h??r?nt]adj. ?固有的,内在的; 天生;(in里面+her粘附+ent……的)
【7段】官员接见中存在的偏袒行为会刺激到公众对于贪污腐败的看法。但也并非一定就是贪污。相反,官员必须避免使用双重标准,或避免与普通人或富人进行不同类型的接见方式。如果可以靠钱买关系,那么民主社会的基本前提——政府面前人人平等——将毁于一旦。善政良治有赖于对每个人的内在价值的把握。
?
【8段】①the court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.
【8段】法院的裁决是在同贪污腐败和官员偏袒主义的斗争中向前迈进的步。
2017年考研英语阅读真题(一)text4——出题思路
一、听懂人话(看看题干,审题,看老师问了你什么?文章的中心是什么,结构是什么?)
40. the author’s attitude toward?the court’s ruling?is
[a] sarcastic.????????????[b] tolerant.
[c] skeptical.????????????[d] supportive.
作者对法院的裁决持【 】态度。
a.讽刺的
b.宽容的
c.怀疑的
d.支持的
这是中心主旨题,作者的态度体现了全文的中心主旨,那么全文的中心话题是 the court’s ruling(法院的裁决),[a] sarcastic.??[b] tolerant.在考试中没有出现过,答案只能从[c] skeptical.?[d] supportive.中二选一,支持或怀疑。
36. the underlined sentence (para.?1) most probably shows that the court???????。
画线句子(第一段)最有可能表明最高法院:通过上下文的逻辑。
?
37. according to paragraph 4, an official act?is deemed corruptive?only if it involves(细节)
根据第四段,只有在涉及【 ????】时,公务行为才会被视为腐败
(文中提到腐败,公务行为,本文可能说的是官方的什么行为是腐败犯罪,可反推36题最高法院的态度是负面的,谁会去赞赏腐败?)
关键词:an official act?is deemed corruptive
?
38. the court’s ruling?is based on the?assumption?that (同位语)public officials are(细节)
最高法院的裁决基于公务人员【 ?】这一假设。
(由37可知:裁决基于公务人员腐败犯罪依据)
关键词:?assumption?是题眼
?
39. well-enforced laws in government transparency?are needed to
在政务透明化方面需要实施得力的法律来
关键词:well-enforced 在6段是题眼
transparency[tr?ns?p?r?nsi](trans横穿+par看见;出现+ent……的)透明
?
40. the author’s attitude toward the court’s ruling is
作者对法院的裁决持【 】态度。
?
?
二、顺藤摸瓜,根据中心:顺藤是顺着题干这根藤,摸到答案。也就是说:根据题干的具体情况和提示信息,利用不同的解题方法回到原文逐一寻找每一道题的准确答案信息来源或依据。答案必须有依据。
36. the underlined sentence (para.?1) most probably shows that the court
[a] made no compromise?in convicting mcdonnell.
????[b] avoided defining the extent of?mcdonnell’s duties.
[c] was?contemptuous?of mcdonnell’s?conduct.
[d] refused to comment on mcdonnell’s ethics.
画线句子(第一段)最有可能表明最高法院
a.在对麦克唐纳定罪时没有做出妥协
b.避免界定麦克唐纳的职责范围
c.对麦克唐纳的行为表示蔑视
d.拒绝评论麦克唐纳的道德
?contemptuous?[k?n?tempt?u?s]adj.蔑视的,鄙视的(con=com=together;tempt=try)
compromise[?k?mpr?ma?z] ?妥协方案;(con=com=together;pro=before;mis=cast)
【模糊定位】由37题干中提到腐败,公务行为,本文可能说的是官方的什么行为是腐败犯罪,可反推36题最高法院的态度是负面的,谁会去赞赏腐败?[c] was contemptuous?of mcdonnell’s conduct.中有负面的态度contemptuous,有行为conduct,?mcdonnell四个选项中全有,[c] 具备了一切正确答案的特质。
?
【精准定位】划线句上文指出最高法院罕见地一致推翻了对麦克唐纳的贪腐定罪;划线句下文列举了麦克唐纳从公司收受贵重礼物的行为;而划线句内逻辑词but、while在句首表示让步,在句中表示转折;则将语义重点锁定在最高法院对麦克唐纳行为的举动上,且这举动与其“推翻麦克唐纳的贪腐定罪”有转折关系,但不?认同麦克唐纳的行为,唯有[c]符合这条件:尽管推翻了对麦克唐纳的贪腐定罪,却也对其行为表达了明确不满,故[c]正确。
【命题解密】正确项[c]符合划线句与其上下文之间语义逻辑,是对划线句中 holding its nose?at the ethics of his conducts正确解读。4段一句:the court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.”进一步说明[c]符合这条件,因为在全文中作者的态度是一致的。
这题没有对中心进行考察,比较少见。中心话题是?corruption conviction 。第一句说a rare unanimous引起下文,表明高院对corruption conviction定义清析,引起下文。
本质做错原因是不认识?contemptuous。
【1段】①in a rare unanimous?ruling, the us supreme court?has overturned?the?corruption conviction of a former virginia governor, robert mcdonnell.?②but it did so while holding its?(=the us supreme court)nose at the ethics of?his conduct(行为),?which (=his conduct)included accepting gifts such as a rolex watch and a ferrari automobile from a company seeking access to government.
要点注释:在上述“ while+现在分词短语”结构中,因其主语与主句中的主语相同,故省略了主语it和系动词was,从而形成了“ while+非谓语动词”结构。其相当于一个时间状语从句,即: while it was holding its?nose?government。此外,此从句中的it和句子主干中的it均指代①句中的 the us supreme court。
which included accepting gifts such as a rolex watch and a ferrari automobile from a company?seeking access to government。
which引导的非限定性定语从句,补充说明 his conduct。?seeking access to government现在分词短语作后置定语,修饰 a company。
?
?
unanimous?[ju?n?n?m?s]全体一致的; 一致同意的(un=one)
(un单个+anim=mind思想+ous……的;)the jury returned a unanimous guilty verdict. ?
陪审团一致作出了有罪裁决。
verdict [?v??d?kt]n.(陪审团的)裁决; 裁定;?(ver=true)
corruption?[k??r?p?n]腐败,贪污,受贿;(rupt=break)
(cor全部+rupt断)(腐败结果是国家这棵大树倒下)
conviction[k?n?v?k?n] n.判罪; 坚信; (正义战胜邪恶是“判罪”;最后一定会胜利是“坚信”)
(con=together;vict=conquer;-tion后缀)
convictive ?[k?nv?kt?v] ?adj.有说服力的,令人信服的
ethics[ 伦理(学)
access to接近; 去…的通路
【1段】美国最高法院推翻了对前弗吉尼亚州州长罗伯特·麦克唐纳贪污行为的定罪,这是为数不多的一致性通过的裁决。虽然如此,但最高法院对他的行为道德却嗤之以鼻,这些行为包括从家谋求接近政府官员机会的公司收受劳力士手表,法拉利汽车等礼物.
?
?
37. according to paragraph 4,?an official act?is deemed corruptive only if it involves
[a] concrete returns for gift-givers.
[b] sizable gains in the form of gifts.
[c] leaking secrets intentionally.
[d] breaking contracts officially.
根据第四段,只有在涉及【 ????】时,公务行为才会被视为腐败。
a.给送礼者具体的回报
b.以礼物的形式获得可观的收益
c.有意泄露机密
d.公务上的违约
关键词:an official act?is deemed corruptive
?
【精准定位】由题干中official act可定位在第四段③,先看本段主旨,①是对上一部分的总结,是36题的答案。本句是否定句,找到上句,②句指出:根据反贿赂法,(构成贪腐罪的)证据必须是实实在在的好处,譬如批准某项合同或规定。可见,公务行为判定为贪腐的必要条件是公务人员为送礼者提供切实回报,故[a]正确。
【命题解密】题干+正确项[a]是对本段2句的 proof must be?made of concrete benefits 的同义改写.
由题干 an official act可定位在③,但③句前有simply,且本句是is not an “official act.”
只能往上一句找。but本身是考点。答案只能②句。
本质做错原因是不认识?bribery?[?bra?b?ri] n.行贿; [法]贿赂。
【4段】①the court did(强调suggest )?suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.” ②but under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation.?③simply (=only)arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event?is not?an “official act.”
under:according to
bribery?[?bra?b?ri] n.行贿; [法]贿赂;
bribe [bra?b] 贿赂;(beg)
bride [bra?d] 新娘
bridegroom新郎;(groom=man)
concrete[?k??kri?t]adj.混凝土制的; 具体的; 实在的;(con=together;cre=grow)

2017年考研英语阅读真题(一)text4——出题思路 – 哔哩哔哩(2017年考研英语二)插图
(混凝土是长在一起的,是很实的东西)
【4段】最高法院的确表示收受好处并因此为他人提供便利作为回报的行为“令人不快”且“下流龌龊’。但根据反贿赂法,构成贪腐的证据必须由具体有形的利益构成,如合同或法规的批准。仅仅安排一次会见、打电话或举办活动都算不上“公务行为”。
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38. the court’s ruling is based on the assumption that public officials?are
[a] allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters.
[b] qualified to deal independently with?bureaucratic?issues.
[c] justified in addressing the needs of their constituents.
[d] exempt from conviction on the charge of favoritism.
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最高法院的裁决基于公务人员【 ?】这一假设。
a.被允许将精力集中在其支持者所关心的事上
b.有能力独立解决官僚问题
c.有正当理由满足其选民的需求
d.在被指控偏袒时可免除罪行
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【精准定位】题干中关键词:assumption that public officials
第五段首句指出最高法院裁决在法律上合理地界定了某种合法的偏袒行为,末句则以首席大法官之言引出其依据:基本契约是代议制政府的执政基础,契约中有一条假设“公职人员应该听取其选民心声,并就选民所关切之事行事”,亦即“公职人员应该满足其选民需求”,因此[c]正确。
【命题解密】题干+正确项[c]是对第五段③句 assumes that public?officials will hear from their?constituents and act on their?concerns的同义改写。
allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters.focus on集中;不应支持者,应是所有选民,如6 段讲的是本意.
由①句可知[d] exempt from conviction?on the charge of favoritism.是错误的,因为判定某种偏袒不属于犯罪,对于exempt from conviction,就无从谈起。
assumption [??s?mp?n] n.假定; 承担; 获得;(as=to;sumpt=take)(拿住→认为是……[假定])
assume假装;假定,设想;承担;呈现,采取
(as加强动作+sume拿,取→拿住→认为是……[假定],承担)
presume假定,假设,认为,揣测,滥用,擅自行动
(pre预先+sume拿,取→预先拿住→假定)
?bureaucratic?[?bj??r??kr?t?k]adj.官僚(主义)的;
bureau [?bj??r??]n.局; (提供某方面信息的)办事处; (based on greek :brown可能是一张紫色的桌子)
constituent [k?n?st?tju?nt]n.成分,要素; (选区)选民;(con共同+stit建立,放+uent)(con- + statuere‘set’一群人)
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【5段】①the court’s ruling is legally sound(adj.明智的)?in defining a kind of favoritism that is not criminal. ②elected leaders must be allowed to help supporters deal with bureaucratic problems without fear of prosecution of bribery. ③“the basic compact underlying (构成…的基础(或起因))representative government,” wrote chief justice john roberts for the court, “assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.”
define [d??fa?n] 阐明; 限定(它出现,正确答案出现)
?criminal?[?kr?m?nl] adj.犯罪的; 刑法的
bureaucratic [?bj??r??kr?t?k]adj.官僚(主义)的;
prosecution?[?pr?s??kju:?n]n.控告,起诉(pro=before;secut=follow,表示)
persecution迫害(per= all through;secut=follow)
(per始终+secut跟随,追+e→从头跟到尾→跟踪→迫害)
execute [?eks?kju?t]执行, 实行, 完成, 处死
(ex出去,即出去做+secut跟随,追+e→execute→[判决]之后而来的就是执行)
【5段】在判定某种偏袒不属于犯罪时,法院的裁决是既合法又合理的。民选领袖应该被允许去 助其支持者处理官僚问题而无须担心被起诉受贿。法院的首席法官约翰·罗伯特写道“代议制政府下的基本协定认为公务人员应听从其选民意见并按照其意愿行使职能。
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39. well-enforced?laws in government transparency?are needed to
[a] awaken the conscience of officials.
[b] allow for(考虑到)?certain kinds of lobbying.(为了支持或抵制某项特定目标游说)
????[c] guarantee fair play in official access.
[d] inspire hopes in average people.
在政务透明化方面需要实施得力的法律来
a.唤醒官员的良知
b.确保接触官员的机会平等
c.顾及某些游说行为
d.点燃普通民众的希望
关键词:well-enforced的复合词。
【精准定位】本题是快速阅读题。由well-enforced的复合词定位在第六段。三句间语义逻辑实为“官员接见时要确保公平(①句从正面说),这需要官员做到廉正(即不徇私情从反面说)(②句),而廉正又需要政府透明度方面有强有力的法律保障(③句)”,由此可见,政府透明度方面强有力的法律旨在确保官员接见中的人人平等,因此[c]正确。
【命题解密】本段根据关键词定位于3句,答案在一句。方法一、but在开头,表示整段的转折,这句话是本段的主旨句,可能是考点。?to ensure equality of access to government是目地。同c 一致;方法二、this type?指代是考点,指的是1、2句。[c]是对3句this type of integrity的正确解读:官员禁止徇私情,官员要确保政府接见机会人人平等。requires =are needed to
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①but the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts,?to ensure equality of access to government.?②officials must not be allowed to play favorites in providing information or in arranging meetings simply because an individual or group provides a campaign donation or a personal gift. ③this type?(指代是考点在二句)of integrity requires?well-enforced?laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth.
but在开头,表示整段的转折,这句话是本段的主旨句,可能是考点。
donation[d???ne??n]?n.捐赠物,捐赠(don=give给予+ate表动词)
representative[?repr??zent?t?v]n.代表; 继任者; 议员; (re一再+present出席的+ative人或物等)
integrity[?n?teɡr?ti].正直,诚实(integr=whole,表示)
(integr完整+ity表名词→n.正直,诚实;完整,完全)
transparency?[tr?ns?p?r?nsi]n.透明; 透明度; 透明性
(trans横穿+par看见;出现+ent……的→横穿过去看得一样清楚→透明的)
lobby [?l?bi] 门厅,大厅; 休息室; 游说团;
【6段】尽管如此,该裁决强化了公民及其民意代表而非法院的需求,以此来保证接触政府的公正性。政府官员不得因个人或群体实施捐赠活动或赠送私人礼物而对其偏袒,为其提供情报或安排会晤。这类形式的廉正需要政务公开的强制性法律,如正式会议记录、游说规则以及每位被选出的领导人的财富来源信息。
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40. the author’s attitude toward the court’s ruling is
[a] sarcastic.????????????[b] tolerant.
[c] skeptical.????????????[d] supportive.
作者对法院的裁决持【 】态度。
a.讽刺的(不是被选项)
b.宽容的(不是被选项)
c.怀疑的
d.支持的
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【精准定位】末段直接明确指出该裁决将与腐败“公务偏祖行为”的斗争向前推进了步。由此可见,作者对该项裁决持支持态度。[d]正确。
【命题解密】正确项[d]是对末四段中 legally sound、reinforces、 a step forward等词所传递出的作者对裁决看法的正确解读。作者观点常在最后一段。
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①the court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.
【8段】法院的裁决是在同贪污腐败和官员偏袒主义的斗争中向前迈进的步。

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